顏念慈(1) 戴謙(2) 黃木秋(3)
(1)畜產試驗所 (2)成功大學 (3)中興大學
為了解臺灣各地區黑色豬隻基因組及粒線體DNA之差異，乃應用逢機增殖DNA多態性指紋、粒線體DNA單股構形多態性及DNA序列分析技術，將來自臺灣嘉義、三峽、淡水、樹林、關廟、 峨嵋、彰化及畜產試驗所畜試黑豬一號之樣品進行基因組及粒線體DNA之差異分析，並以臺灣地區現有之洋品種純種豬隻者做比較。以逢機增殖DNA多態性指紋分析結果為：1.比較畜試黑豬一號與各地區黑色豬隻的遺傳相似性，峨嵋與關廟兩地區黑色豬隻與畜試黑豬一號相似性較高(0.894與0.876)。2.若以桃園種、杜洛克、漢布夏及盤克夏四個品種與各地區黑色豬隻進行遺傳相似性分析，嘉義、彰化、三峽及樹林黑色豬隻各分別與桃園種相似性較高，而關廟、淡水及峨嵋黑色豬隻則各分別與杜洛克相似性較高。由粒線體DNA單股構形多態性分析結果得知，可依環帶之形態將之分出四種電泳態樣(定為A, B, C及D態樣)。歐美品種豬隻的粒線體DNA單股構形多態性電泳態樣皆有A 態樣，而亞洲品種豬隻的粒線體DNA單股構形多態性電泳態樣則無A態樣，關廟地區黑色豬隻的粒線體DNA單股構形多態性態樣皆為A態樣，由此結果顯示其雌親物質來自歐美品種。所有參試黑色豬隻的單股構形多態性態樣分佈為107 A ( 43.7%)，47 B ( 19.2%)，31 C ( 12.6%)及60 D ( 24.5%)態樣。粒線體DNA D-loop區域DNA片段序列分析顯示臺灣各地區黑色豬隻遺傳差異介於0.00∼4.84 %。
STUDIES ON THE GENOMIC AND MITOCHONDRIAL DNA OF BLACK PIGS IN TAIWAN
N. T. Yen(1), C. Tai(2) and M. C. Huang(3)
(1)Taiwan Livestock Research Institute, (2)National Cheng Kung University, (3)National Chung Hsing University In order to investigate the characterizations of genomic and mitochondrial DNA among black pigs raised in Taiwan. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting, single strand conformation polymorphism of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and DNA sequencing techniques were employed for the studies. The animal DNA samples were collected from the areas in Chiai, Sanshia, Danshuei, Shulin, Guanmiaw, Emei, Changhua and Taiwan Livestock Research Institute (TB). Some foreign pure breeds of pigs were used for the control. The results of RAPD fingerprinting analysis showed that: 1. To compare the between-population genetic similarity between TB and black pigs from the other areas, the black pigs from two areas, Emei and Guanmiaw, were higher than the other areas (0.894 and 0.876). 2. To consider the between-population genetic similarity between black pigs of all areas in Taiwan and four pure breeds, Taoyuan, Duroc, Hampshire and Berkshire, the genetic characteristic of black pigs that came from Chiai, Changhua, Sanshia and Shulin were closely related to Taoyuan, and the genetic characteristic of black pigs that came from Guanmiaw, Danshuei and Emei were closely related to Duroc. Four types of SSCP band patterns (designated as A, B, C and D) were identified. ‘A’ type of SSCP pattern was in all European-American breeds, but not in Asian breed. SSCP patterns of all black pigs that came from Guanmiaw area belonged to ‘A’ type, this result indicated that their maternal parents were diverged from European-American breed. SCP analysis of black pigs of Taiwan revealed that the distributions for four SSCP patterns were 107 A (43.7%), 47 B (19.2%), 31 C (12.6%) and 60 D (24.5%). DNA sequence analysis of mtDNA D-loop region showed the genetic diversity among black pigs of all areas ranged from 0.00 to 4.84 %.
Key Words: Black pig, Genomic DNA, Mitochondrial DNA.