Pig Breeding in Taiwan


Chein Tai


Taiwan Livestock Research Institute


Swine industry is one of the most important agricultural productions in Taiwan. The economic value of annual swine production shares about 20% of total value of agricultural products. Many efforts are involved in this fact, and the contribution from pig breeding is the most significant one. In view of the improvement of pig breeds in Taiwan, the native pigs were the major breeds before 1950, then the Berkshire was introduced into the blood of Taiwan pig breeds. Following the Berkshire, the Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc were imported during 1963 to 1972. After many years of research and practice of Taiwan Sugar Corporation and Taiwan Livestock Research Institute {TLRI), the 3-way hybrids of Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc become the major meat hogs in market. A basic construction of swine industry is thereby formed (Chyr, 1987). A swine breeding and supplying system was started in 1980 (Fig. 1). The test for breeding stocks includes central test, on-farm test, national nucleus herds, swine breed registration, LY gilt test, LYD hog test and the evaluation of private breeding farms. These programs are conducted or supervised by TLRI, Pig Research Institute, Animal Production Laboratory of National Taiwan University, Swine Production Association, and the Agricultural and Forestry Department of Provincial Government. This network forms the basic system of swine breeding and supply. Several committees of breeding association were organized by swine breeders, including the Breeding Pig Improvement Committee, LY Gilts Breeders' Club, and Breeding Pig Registration Committee. These committees are responsible for the communication with different institutes aforementioned for the participation of test programs. This system makes the pork industry of Taiwan internationalized. Moreover, an extension work of artificial insemination in pigs has been started since 1976 in TLRI, which was financially supported by the Taiwan Grains and Feeds Development Foundation. This extension service network supplied the semen from boars with high index in the central test, and made the prevalence of Al technique as well as the utilization of good gene resources. More than 540,000 doses of boar semen have been extended through this AI program during 1976 to 1989, and an average of 80% fertilization rate was obtained (Hsu, 1989). This accomplishment is favorable for the improvement of pig breeding.

Due to the rapid progress in economy, the structure of swine production as well as other industries in Taiwan is in a transition period now. The stronger sense of environmental protection ever than before has brought a hard time for the swine industry. Fortunately, an efficient system for animal waste treatment has been developed by TLRI, and the animal waste pollution problem is improved significantly from the cooperative efforts of agriculturai departments and pig farmers, although more work is still needed to be done. On the other hand, Taiwan will soon become a member of CATT, thus there will be a tremendous pressure for industry from the free importation of meat products. Therefore, the pig farmers are looking for a substantial approach to face free market in coming years. It is consistently accepted that selection on breeding stocks is one of the most potential aspects in the future swine production. The swine breeding and supply system has been carried out for more than ten years and achieved certain goals. Some results obtained from that system will be presented by three scholars in this conference (Sung, 1993; Tsou, 1993; and Chang et. al., 1993). Thus the supply of breeding stocks to farmers from TLRI is not important any more Instead, the private breeding farms are well developed and supply most of the breeding pigs to local farmers. July lst this year in order to integrate all the functions of different committees. Therefore, to join international animal breeding scholars, animal production officials, and specialists from industry of this country in this conference provides an important opportunity for us to share the ideas for constructing breeding strategy of pigs for the future.




Chang, H. L., Z. C. Kao, Y. H. Huang, and C. Tai. 1993. Breeding progress of national swine nucleus herds in Taiwan. in " Pork Industry Conference on Breeding Strategies", Taiwan Livestock Research Institute, pp. F35 ˇV F55.


Chyr, S. C.,1987. Pig breeding and development in Taiwan. The Proceedings of Pig Breeding and Development in Asia. April 26 - May 3, 1987, ASPAC FFTC, pp.C1-45.


Hsu, T. T. 1989. The development of pig artificial insemination in Taiwan. The seminars on the projects supported by Taiwan Grains and Feeds Development Foundation, Taiwan Sugar Corporation.


Sung, Y. Y. 1993. Pure breed registration of swine in Taiwan. in "Pork Industry Conference on Breeding Strategies", Taiwan Livestock Research Institute. pp. F5 ˇV Fl2.


Tsou, H L., 1993. The Taiwan pig performance on - farm testing program: Current status and future development. in "POrk Industry Conference on Breeding Strategiesˇ¨, Taiwan Livestock Research Institute. pp. F13 - F34.

Fig 1. Swine Breeding and Supplying System